The term C.M.C. is generic and refers to organic sodium carboxymethylcellulose. Binders are used in ceramics to harden unfired ceramic glazes. This makes for safer handling of ware, better adherence to the body, slower drying (thus better brushability). CMC also reduces drying shrinkage and enables multi-layering without flaking or cracking. Single layer cover glazes that have natural hardening properties (i.e. from 15% or more clay) do not need CMC. CMC is an important addition to stain mixes that are applied over-glaze by stamping or painting.